With a disassembler it is possible to analyze binary files. There are a lot of different programs on the market for different platforms. A lot of them supports different architectures too. Some of them are listed bellow.
For Windows OllyDbg is very popular. It is commercial Freeware/Shareware, which supports most of the features needed for analyzing x86 Windows binaries. (http://www.ollydbg.de/)
Capstone is a relatively new disassembler, which supports a lot of different platforms and architectures. (http://www.capstone-engine.org/)
IDA Pro (Multiplatform):
IDA Pro is the a commercial disassembler for a huge variant of platforms and architectures. An older version of IDA is available as Freeware. (https://www.hex-rays.com/products/ida/)
With objdump it is also possible to disassemble different binaries. A lot of different options for disassembling can be used. For every architecture a tool-chain must be set-up, which understand the instructions of the architecture.
$objdump -D binary